Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, where the powers of state are appointed through general and democratic elections. The meaning of republicanism varies depending on the cultural and historical context, but the original notion of republic (res publica) make us back to Roma. Indeed, enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system, mainly by the firmly recognition of the paper of citizenship on building the future of the nation, albeit it wasn’t included a systematic separation of powers. In the modern era there was a convergence of the notions of democracy, res publica, citizenship and republicanism. Republicanism with an emphasis on liberty, and a rejection of corruption, indicate the rule by the people and by the law.
Lawrence Lessig showed, in this excellent keynote, the sharp gap between theory and practice on republicanism, at least nowadays.